Activity Based Science Learning >Total internal reflection in a bottle

Objective: To study total internal reflection
Equipment: A dettol bottle, some common salt, a laser torch
Introduction: When light goes from a denser medium to a rarer medium, and the angle of incidence is larger than a critical value, called critical angle, whole of the light will get reflected at the surface. If the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle, part of the light is reflected and part of it is refracted. In this inexpensive demo we show the light paths as the medium changes and hence all phenomena on refraction can be visually seen. It is very simple and has been widely appreciated wherever we have shown it.

Procedure: Take a dettol bottle and fill water in it up to say three fourths of its height. Put some common salt in it. Tighten the cap. Put on a laser torch and send light from outside into the water obliquely. The front end of the torch should be in contact with the thinner side of the bottle at a height covered by water, and the incline of the torch should be adjusted by tilting the torch with your hand. Adjust the orientation so that the light goes parallel to the flat faces of the bottle, but at an angle to the surface of the water.
You should be able to see the path of the laser beam in the water. If it is not clearly visible, invert the bottle for a second. This will bring the salt sitting at the bottom in the whole water and make the path visible. Slowly change the orientation of the laser torch and you very clearly see the total internal reflection. If you make the torch closer to vertical, thus decreasing the angle of incidence, the reflected beam will loose its intensity. A spot will form on the opposite wall of the bottle above the water surface. This tells that a part of the beam is getting transmitted.
Now you put smoke of an incense stick into the bottle. It will collect above the water surface. Now when you send laser beam and if it gets transmitted to air side the transmitted beam will also be clearly seen, though it will be hazy. So for angles less than the critical angle you see both reflected and transmitted beams, and for angles larger than the critical angle, only reflected beam is observed.
Discussion: Dettol bottle suites this demo because the walls are flat. This demo can be extended to informal lab, by encouraging students to adjust the torch for grazing angle refraction and measuring the inclination angle from vertical which is also the normal to the surface. This angle is the critical angle.
When to do: Class 10 when you are teaching total internal reflection
Instrument cost and availability: Laser torch




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