Isaac Newton, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time,
single-handedly contributed more to the development of science than
any other individual in history. It may not be exaggeration to state
that Newton was the single most important contributor to the development
of modern science. He surpassed the achievements made together by
all the great scientific minds of antiquity by producing a scheme
of the universe which was consistent, elegant, and intuitive.
Newton stated explicit principles of scientific
methods which applied universally to all branches of science. His
methodologies produced a neat balance between theoretical and experimental
inquiry and between the mathematical and mechanical approaches.
Newton mathematised the entire gamut of physical sciences. He reduced
the study of the physical sciences to a rigorous, universal and
rational procedure which marked the ushering in of the Age of Reason.
The basic principles of scientific investigation stipulated by Newton
have survived without any alteration until modern times.
Newton’s methodology was strictly logical.
He presented his methodology as a set of four rules for scientific
reasoning : 1) We are to admit no more causes of natural things
such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances;
2) The same natural effects must be assigned to the same causes;
3) Qualities of bodies are to be extended as universal; and 4) Propositions
deduced from observations of phenomena should be viewed as accurate
until other phenomena contradict them. These four concise and universal
rules for investigation were truly revolutionary. By their application
Newton was able to unravel virtually all the unsolved problems of
his day. Commenting on his approach to science once Newton wrote
: “The best and safest way of philosophizing seems to be,
first to enquire diligently into the properties of things and to
establish those properties by experiments and then to proceed slowly
to hypotheses for the explanation of them. For hypotheses should
be employed only in explaining the properties of things, but not
assumed in determining them; unless so far as they may furnish experiments.”
Newton’s methodologies led the natural philosophers
to appreciate the “scientific method” – observation,
generatlisation and experimentation – above all other methods
of inquiry. Francois Marie Arouet de Voltair (1694-1778), the French
writer and philosopher, said : “Newton taught men to examine,
weigh, calculate and measure but never to conjecture … He
saw, and made people see; but he did not put his fancies in place
The scientific revolution that Galileo (1564-1642)
had initiated at the beginning of the seventeenth century was triumphantly
completed by Newton at the century’s end. Newton’s scientific
work brought him great fame. He was idolised, almost deified, in
his own lifetime. Newton was not right about everything. For example
he thought that `absolute motion’ could exist, which Albert
Einstein (1879-1955) later disproved with his theory of relativity.
Newton was never on very cordial terms with any of his contemporaries.
Since his childhood he remained a loner all his life. He did not
marry. He was always slightly paranoid and unquestionably contentious.
Newton quarreled often and pettily. His quarrels with Robert Hooke
(1635-1703), Christiaan Huygens (1629-95), Gottfried Wilhelm Leinbniz
(1646-1716) and John Flamsteed are much discussed episodes in the
history of science. Newton encouraged and prompted his friends and
followers to join the fray.
Newton was born on 25 December 1642 at a village
Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire in Eastern England. Here it is important
to note that when Newton was born, the British Calendar was ten
days ahead than the Gregorian Calendar. This is because though the
Gregorian Calender was introduced in Catholic countries in 1582
but it was not applied in Britain until 1752.
His father, also Isaac Newton, who was a farmer,
died a few months before Newton’s birth. Newton was born prematurely
and christened Isaac in memory of his father. Newton’s mother
Hannah remarried in 1645 and left him under the care of his maternal
grandmother at Woolsthrope. After gaining the rudiments of education
at the local school Newton joined the Grammar School at Grantham,
where he lived with the family of an apothecary, called Mr. Clark.
The Clarks were no ordinary apothecary’s family. Mrs. Clark’s
brother Humphrey Babington was a Fellow of Trinity College who spent
most of his time at Boothby Pagnell, near Grantham, where he was
Rector. The School provided Newton a grounding in the classics mainly
Latin with some Greek and a little mathematics. The knowledge of
Latin proved to be very useful in Newton’s scientific career.
In those days academics across Europe used to communicate in Latin.
Many important scientific books were available only in Latin. At
the school Newton was a lonely boy. He was not a very good student.
Nobody paid much attention to him. One incident in school that had
influence on his life was his fight with a larger lad. This lad
was the school bully, who also happened to be first in studies as
well. The fight ensued after Newton was punched by the bully. Newton
fought back, he pushed the bully onto the ground and rubbed his
face in the mud. The other students who were watching the fight
cheered for Newton as they all hated the bully. Newton found that
he could fight better than the bully and this made him think that
he could do anything better than the bully. As a result he decided
to pay attention to studies to compete. He stood first in his class.
At school his greatest delights were solitary study and manufacturing
mechanical devices. He made windmills, water-clocks, and sundials.
It is said that he invented a four-wheel carriage which was to be
moved by a rider. He also caused one of the earliest recorded UFO
(Unidentified Flying Object) scares by flying a kite at night with
a paper lantern attached to it.
After the death of her second husband in 1656,
Newton’s mother came back to Woolsthorpe. Towards the end
of 1659 Newton’s mother removed him from school so that he
might prepare himself for managing the farm he would one day inherit
from his mother. However, Newton proved to be no good in farming.
He neglected his work in order to read book. On several occasions
he was fined for allowing animals in his care to wander and damage
other farmers’ crops. There is an interesting story linked
to Newton during the period when he was supposed to practise farming.
A steep hill is situated between Grantham and Woolsthorpe. It was
a usual practice to dismount and lead one’s horse to the top
of the hill before remounting. It is said that one day Newton arrived
home with a book in one hand and the bridle in the other, his horse
trotting behind him, as he had forgotten to remount. Throughout
his life he had this habit of forgetfullness. There are many stories
about his forgetfullness. In one story he had invited some of his
friends to his house for dinner. They had the dinner and then went
to the lounge. After an hour Newton jumped up and announced “we
have talked long enough – let’s have dinner”.
It was only after finding lot of bones and other leftovers, he did
realise to his great embarrassment that they had already taken dinner.
His maternal uncle William Ayscough, Rector of
Burton Coggles, wanted Newton to go Trinity College, Cambridge.
Ayscoughs was a Cambridge graduate. Newton needed to prepare for
getting admitted in Trinity College. So he needed to go back to
his school. Henry Stockes, the schoolmaster of the Grammar School
offered to take Newton into his own home, without being paid for
lodging. In the autumn of 1660 Newton went back to school mainly
to prepare for entrance to Cambridge.
He was admitted to Trinity College of the Cambridge
University on July 1661. Newton was certainly benefited by the advice
and influence of Babington. In those days young gentlemen used to
be admitted to the Cambridge University at the tender age of 14
accompanied by a servant to look after them. But Newton entered
the Trinity College at the lowest level, as a so-called subsizar,
who paid for his keep by acting as a servant himself for the Fellows
of the College and even for wealthy students. To be a subsizar was
not at all a pleasant experience. Rather at its worst it could be
extremely unpleasant. For Newton it was not so unpleasant. He was
the servant to Humphrey Babington, who was seldom in residence in
Cambridge and so Newton had few menial duties to perform. But at
the same time Newton’s status as subsizar was not at all enjoyable.
Newton graduated in 1665. He had displayed no
special brilliance. Nobody had an inkling that Newton would become
the great unifier of the scientific revolution, drawing from the
ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
and Galileo and others or that he would make great contribution
to the fields of optics and mathematics. In 1665 the Great Plague
hit London, virtually shutting that city down. Cambridge soon followed.
The Cambridge University was temporarily closed. Some students alongwith
their tutors moved to the nearby villages. Newton went to live at
his mother’s farm in Lincolnshire. The farm was purchased
by his grandfather Robert Newton. Newton stayed 18 months at Lincolnshire
before he permanently returned to Cambridge in April 1667. It was
a forced vacation. This period was Newton’s annus mirabilis
(a year regarded as pivotal or crucial). Commenting on this period
Newton said : “In those days (1665-67) I was in the prime
of my age for invention and minded, Mathematics and Philosophy more
than at any time since.” Here Newton began putting together
some of his ideas. The results marked the beginning of a long and
a fruitful career in science. It is during this forced vacation
Newton laid the foundations for the calculus, a mathematical method
of calculation that revolutionised scientists’ ability to
handle complicated equations. It was also during this period that
Newton noticed an apple falling to the ground. There is no evidence
to indicate that the apple did hit him on the head as legend claims.
Seeing the falling apple Newton started wondering whether the force
that pulled the apple towards the Earth is the same force that kept
the Moon in its orbit. It marked a major departure from earlier
belief held by scientists followed by Aristotle, who insisted that
the Earth and the heavens operated on two entirely different sets
of laws. But Newton started thinking that there is only one set
of universal laws and not two. At Lincolnshire, Newton also carried
out a fascinating series of experiments with light.
The Cambridge University was among the best universities
when it was founded in the thirteenth century. However, at Newton’s
time Cambridge was not a very good place for learning particularly
for learning science. Its learning was church-oriented. The only
scientific professorship, the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics was
established in 1663. Its first incumbent was Isaac Barrow, who was
a Professor of Greek. Its only relevant courses were in theology
and medicine. So Newton had to depend on his own study. Newton became
so absorbed in his studies that often he would forget to eat and
would stay up all night at his book. He did not care about his dress
and hardly took a bath. He studied the writings of Galileo, Kepler,
Descartes and Euclid among others. It is said that he turned to
Euclid because he was bothered by his inability to comprehend certain
diagram in a book on astrology which he had bought at a fair. However,
he thought its propositions as self-evident and thus he put it aside
as “trifling book”. He took it up again after being
persuaded by his teacher, Isaac Barrow. He received a scholarship
in April 1664 which ensured his stay at Cambridge till 1668. Newton
received his BA in January 1665 and got his MA degree in 1668.
In 1667 Newton was elected a Fellow of the Trinity
College and two years later he was appointed Lucasian Professor
of Mathematics succeeding his teacher Dr.Barrow. The post of Lucasian
Professor was one of the most desirable appointments in Cambridge.
The professorship brought with it an income of 200 pounds a year
with no tutorial responsibilities. It was a secure tenure for life.
Its incumbent was to give only one course of lectures a year.
In 1672 Newton was elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society of London and later that year he published his first scientific
paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Society describing
his new theory of light and colour. The paper was titled “New
Theory about Light and Colours.” In this paper Newton demonstrated
that the ordinary white light was a mixture of the various colours
of the spectrum. Though the paper was well received but two leading
natural philosophers, Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens rejected
Newton’s claim by stating that his theory was derived with
certainty from experiments alone. Particularly they objected to
what they took to be Newton’s attempt to prove by experiment
alone that light consists in the motion of small particles or corpuscles
rather than in the transmission of waves of pulses. By publishing
this paper Newton started a lifelong feud with Hooke.
Newton was a mathematician of incomparable power.
In 1696 the Swiss mathematician Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748) posed
a problem to the mathematician of Europe, allowing then six months
to solve. Newton solved the problem in single night and published
it in it Transactions of the Royal Society. Though the paper did
not bear Newton’s name but Bernouli was not fooled. He claimed
to recognize the author as ‘the lion by his claw’. In
1716 the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz issued a
difficult problem. It is said that Leibniz had devised the complicated
problem for the express purpose of stumping Newton. However, Newton
solved the problem before going to bed after a day’s work
at the Mint.
Newton discovered the generalised form of the bionomial
theorem. He wrote about his discovery to Henry Oldenburg in 1676.
He did not publish this discovery. It was later published by John
Wallis (1616-1703) with due credit given to Newton. Newton laid
the foundation for elementary differential and integral calculus.
Calculus was also independently discovered by the German philosopher
and mathematician Leibniz. However, Newton did not immediately publish
it. His work on calculus, Methodis fluxionum (Method of Fluxions)
composed between 1670 and 1671, was only published posthumously
in 1736. Of course, Newton showed his unpublished works to his friends
and colleagues. In fact in 1676 Newton deposited with Oldenburg
his epistola prior (first letter) claiming discovery of his method
of fluxions in an anagram. The terminology arose from his considering
the path of a continuously moving body as a curve made by a continuously
moving point. The moving point Newton called a fluent and its velocity
he called a fluxion. He denoted fluxion by X and its acceleration
as X. However, presently the notation used are that of Leibniz.
On the other hand Leibniz published his own work on the differential
and integral calculus in 1684 and he did not acknowledge any unpublished
work of Newton though he had seen some Newtonian manuscripts on
a visit to London in 1673. This started a bitter dispute of priority
between Newton and Leibniz. The dispute began in 1700 when Leibniz
objected the practice of the followers of Newton referring to him
(Leibniz) as the `second inventor’ of the calculus. Leibniz
applied to the Royal Society in 1712 to conduct an inquiry into
the matter. At that time Newton was the President of the Royal Society.
He appointed the committee, decided what evidence it should examine
and actually drafted the report himself. What is more he used to
refer this report the Commercium epistolicum (1713. On the Exchange
of Letters) as an independent justification of his position. Newton’s
behaviour was rather shameless. Leibniz and Newton bickered unbecomingly
for some years as to who had the idea first. However, in this context
it is worthwhile to note what Einstein had to say on this controversy.
Einstein wrote : “The differential law is the only form which
completely satisfies the modern physicist’s demand for causality.
The clear conception of the differential law is one of Newton’s
greatest intellectual achievements. It was not merely this conception
that was needed but also a mathematical formalism, which existed
in a rudimentary way but needed to acquire a systematic form. Newton
found this also in the differential and the integral calculus. We
need not consider the question whether Leibnitz hit upon the some
mathematical methods independently of Newton or not. In any case
it was absolutely necessary for Newton to perfect them, since they
alone could provide him with the means of expressing his ideas.”
Newton’s masterpiece Philosophiae Principia
Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) is considered
to be the greatest scientific work ever written. The book originally
written in Latin was published in 1687. It did not appear in English
until 1729, forty-two years after its original publication and two
years after Newton’s death. The book is often referred to
as Principia Mathemctica or simply the Principia. Newton was very
reticent in publishing and he was extremely sensitive to criticism.
It was Edmond Halley (1656-1742) who persuaded Newton to publish
the Principia. Halley played an important role in its publication.
When the Royal Society could not afford to finance its publication
it decided that “Mr. Halley undertake the business of looking
after it and printing it at his own charges”. Halley provided
the necessary funds from his own pocket. He edited the text, corrected
the proofs and saw it through the press.
The publication of Principia represented the culmination
of the scientific revolution that had began with Copernicus a century
and a half earlier. In this book Newton presented an overall scheme
of the universe, one far more elegant and enlightening than any
of his predecessors had devised.
Newton’s another famous prediction concerned
comets. He stated that comets were not as mysterious as they appeared
to be and like planets they also followerd elliptical path around
the Sun. However, comet’s path was far more flattened and
elongated than followed by the planets and which probably take them
far beyond the edges of the solar system. Based on the Newton’s
calculation Halley predicated that the comet sighed by him in 1682
(Halley’s comet) would return in 76 years in 1758 and it did
The book was divided into three parts. In Book
I of Principia, Newton opened with definition of the three laws
of motion, now known as Newton’s laws – laws of inertia,
acceleration proportional to force and action and reaction. Newton’s
first law of motion, which is also known as law of inertia, states
that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion
tends to continue in motion at constant speed in a straight line.
Newton second law states that the more force is placed on an object,
the more it accelerates but the more heavier it is, the more it
resists acceleration. For example it is easier to throw a lighter
object than a heavier one. Newton’s third law states that
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For example
a rocket exerts a downward push on the exhaust gases which push
back it upward. And when the upward push of the exhaust gases exceeds
the weight of the vehicle, the rocket rises off the launch pad in
the air. It was Newton who first differentiated between the mass
and the weight of an object. Often these two terms are used interchangeably
in everyday language. The mass of a body is its resistance to acceleration
or in other words a body’s mass is equivalent to its quantity
of inertia. On the other hand the weight of a body is the gravitational
force between it and another body. In Book II of Principia Newton
presented new scientific philosophy which came to replace Cartesianism.
The last part, Book III consisted of applications of the laws and
conclusions derived in the first two sections. The Book III included
an explanation for tides and a theory of lunar motion. Newton made
some interesting projections. Newton had shown that the gravitational
forces of the Earth’s various parts combined to form a sphere.
But as the Earth spins around its axis, the additional force resulting
from the spinning should prevent it to take up a perfect spherical
shape there should be bulge at the equator. He even predicted the
size of the bulge. In his life time efforts were made to verify
the prediction but because of errors in calculation by mapmakers
Newton appeared to be wrong. Today we know that Newton was right.
In fact his predicted size of the bulge was accurate within one
Newton’s work in physics and celestatial
mechanics culminated in the theory of universal gravitation. Newton’s
great insight of 1666 was to imagine that the Earth’s gravity
extended to the Moon, counterbalancing in centrifugal force. From
his law of centrifugal force and Kepler’s third law of planetary
motion, Newton deduced that the centrifugal force of the moon or
any planet must decreases as the inverse square of its distance
from the centre of its motion. Newton’s law of universal gravitation
states that every piece of matter attracts every other piece with
a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between them. Given the
law of gravitation and the laws of motion Newton could explain a
wide range of hitherto disparate phenomena such as eccentric orbits
of comets, the courses of the tides and their major variation, the
precession of the Earth’s axis and the perturbation of the
moon by the gravity of the Sun. Newton’s one general law of
nature and one system of mechanics reduced to order most of the
known problems of astronomy and terrestrial physics.
Newton’s second great book Opticks was published in 1704,
though it was completed in the mid-1690s. It is said that Newton
had quietly waited to publish it until his arch rival Hook had died.
In Opticks Newton observed that white light could be separated by
a prism into a spectrum of different colours, each chracterised
by a unique refractivity and proposed the corpuscular theory of
light. While the Principia was a “hard book” in Newton’s
own words, the Opticks was written in easily intelligible language
and dealt with ideas, such as light and colour, that everyone could
In 1669 the first earl of Halifax Charles Montague,
Chancellor of the Exchequer offered Newton the post of Warden of
the Royal Mint. Newton, who wanted to leave Cambridge, readily accepted
the offer. Newton’s appointment was confirmed on 19 March
1696 and he moved to London by the end of April. Montague while
informing Newton of his appointment wrote that the post was `worth
five or six hundred pounds (a year), and has not too much business,
to require more attendance than you may spare’. But Newton
took his work very seriously. As Warden he was the number two at
the Mint. It was the Master of the Mint who was in charge. However,
Thomas Neale, the Master of the Mint, was quite happy to leave all
the work to Newton. It was Newton’s duty to pursue the counterfeiters
and clippers of his day. Between June 1698 and Christmas of 1699
Newton interviewed 200 witnesses on 123 separate occasions and 27
counterfeiters were executed. At the end of 1699 Thomas Neale died
and Newton succeeded him as the Master of the Mint. He held the
post until he died. Newton supervised the introduction of a union
coinage in 1707 following the union of kingdom of England and Scotland,
the issue of new copper coins in 1718, the evaluation of the guinea
to 21 shillings in 1717, and a general improvement in the assaying
of the currency.
Newton had studied theology quite seriously. Newton
strongly believed in the necessity of a God. His theological views
are characterised by his belief that the beauty and regularity of
the natural world could only “proceed from the counsel and
dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being”. He thought
that “the supreme God exists necessarily and by the same necessity
he exists always and everywhere”. He believed that God periodically
intervened to keep the universe going on track. He believed that
the foundation of established religion in England was based on corrupted
form of the original biblical texts. Further he thought that the
concept of the Holy Trinity, placing Jesus Christ on equal footing
with god was a false concept. This idea was known as Arianism, after
Arius who established the doctrine. This kind of religious belief
came in the way of Newton’s taking holy orders - a requisite
condition for all Cambridge Fellows. And for Newton also a time
came when without ordination he would not be able to continue the
Fellowship. Loosing Fellowship meant he would also require to relinquish
the Lucasian Chair. But in any case Newton would not take the holy
orders because to him worshipping Christ as God would mean idolatry,
a moral sin that would put his soul in peril. By the beginning of
1675 Newton was almost sure that he would have to part with Cambridge
University. In fact he wrote to Henry Oldenburg, the then Secretary
of the Royal Society, requesting him to be excused from paying his
subscription to the Royal Society. He wrote, “I am to part
with my Fellowship, and as my income contract, I find it will be
convenient that I contract my expenses”.
Newton had only one chance that is to petition
the king for dispensation from the requirement of ordination. So
after obtaining permission of the then Master of Trinity Isaac Barrow
Newton petitioned the King, Charles II. Newton sought such dispensation
not for himself alone as a special case but for all Lucasian Professors.
He argued that the requirement of ordination goes against the spirit
of the bequest under which Henry Lucas had established the chair.
It had a specific requirement that a holder of the post should not
be active in the church. King Charles II, a patron of the Royal
Society and lover of science, granted the dispensation in perpetuity,
“to give all just encouragement to learned men who are and
shall be elected to the said professorship”.
Throughout his life Newton displayed a deep interest
in religion and alchemy. Newton spent much of his time in later
part of his life in theological speculation, astrology and alchemical
research. Newton wrote extensively on religious matters. Among his
religious writings discovered after his death were 1000 manuscript
pages to nearly 1.5 million words and two completed books. For obvious
reasons he kept his writings secret. Much of his life was spent
on deep studies of church history, the Bible and the chronology.
He wanted to show that the text of the Bible had been corrupted
by later Trinitarian editors and a similar corruption was introduced
by Athanasius in the fourth century.
In Newton’s library were 138 books on alchemy
and his own manuscripts on the subject contained more than 600,000
words. It cannot be said with certainty whether Newton was a genuine
alchemist committed to dreams of the philosopher’s stone or
his chemical interests led him to practise alchemy. He had established
a chemical laboratory in Trinity College. Though he was very much
interested in chemistry but he published very little on his chemical
works. He published one brief work on chemistry, De nature acidorum
(1710 ; On the Nature of Acids). There were also several passages
devoted to chemistry scattered among the Queries that Newton added
to his Optiks.
On being by asked by Halley that how he managed
to make so many discoveries Newton said that he never relied an
inspiration or serendipity to give him insight. Once he undertook
a problem to solve Newton did not rest until he found out the answers
-- he would think relentlessly and explore every angle during every
Newton became a Member of Parliament in 1689. In
1703, Newton was elected President of the Royal Society, a position
he retained until his death. Newton was Knighted by Queen Anne in
1705. Newton was the first scientist to be honoured in this way.
However, it is interesting to note that Newton was not Knighted
for his scientific achievements.
Newton died on 20 March 1727 and he was buried
in Westminister Abbey, on 28 March 1727. Voltair, who witnessed
the burial ceremony, said that it was like “the funeral of
a king who had done well by his subjects.”
The Latin inscription of Newton’s tom reads
“ Mortals ! rejoice at so great an ornament to the human race
!” Perhaps no one will disagree that the inscription is fully
justified. Newton was also a human like us and this fact alone should
challenge the rest of us to reach for height like his.
We would like to end this article by quoting what
Einstein wrote on the occasion of the two hundredth anniversary
of Newton’s death: “It is just two hundred years ago
that Newton closed his eyes. We feel impelled at such a moment to
remember this brilliant genius, who determined the course of western
thought, research and practice like no one else before or since.
Not only was he brilliant as an inventor of certain key methods,
but he also had a unique command of the empirical material available
in his day, and he was marvelously inventive as regards detailed
mathematical and physical methods of proof. For all these reasons
he deserves our deepest reverence. The figure of Newton has, however,
an even greater importance than his genius warrants because destiny
placed him at a turning point in the history of the human intellect.
To see this vividly, we have to realise that before Newton there
existed no self-contained system of physical causality which was
somehow capable of representing any of the deeper features of the
For Further Reading
1. David Brewster, Memoirs of the Life, Writings
and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (2 vols.). Edinburgh:Thomas
2. E. B. Jourdain, Essays on the Life and Work of Newton. Chicao:
Open Court, 1914.
3. Louis Trenchard More, Isaac Newton: Abiography. New york: Charles
Scribenar’s Sons, 1934.
4. J. W. N. Sullivan, Isaac Newton,1642-1727. London: Macmillan,
5. E. N. da C. Andrade, Isaac Newton. London: Parish, 1950.
6. Gale E. Christianson. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton
and His Times. New York: Free Press, 1984.
7. Frank E. Manuel. Portrait of Isaac Newton. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1965.
8. Alexander Koyre. Newtonian Studies. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1965.
9. D. T. Whiteside. The Mathematical Works of Isaac Newton (2 vols).
New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1964.
10. Carl B. Boyer, The Concepts of the Calculus: A Critical and
Historical Discussion of the Derivative and the Integral. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1939.
11. A. R. Hall, Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton
and Leibniz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
12. A. I. Sabra. Theories of light from Descartes to Newton. London:
13. John Herivel. The Background to Newton’s `Principia’.
Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1965.
14. B. J. T. Dobbs. The Foundations of Newton’s Alchemy: The
Hunting of the Green Lyon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
15. Frank E. Manuel. Isaac Newton, Historian. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1963.
16. Frank E. Manuel. The Religion of Isaac Newton. Oxford : Oxford
University Press, 1974.
17. Margret Jacob. The Newtonians and the nglish Revolution, 1869-1720.
Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1976.
18. Richard S. Westfall. The Life of Isaac Newton, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1993